NAMIBIA: FROM GERMAN RULE TO THE HANDS OF APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA REGIME; TO INDEPENDENCE & STABLE DEMOCRACY

Pre-Independence History

1886- Germany annexes ‘South West Africa, Territory (Today Namibia) after signing a Treaty with Portugal and Britain. An Uprising against German Occupation led by Herero and Nama People in this Territory leads to a deadly Clash with German Forces resorting to brute Force to suppress the Rebellion. A 4-Years bloody Confrontation between 1904-1908 leaves 80% of Herero People and 50% of Nama People Dead in what is Today remembered as ‘Herero-Nama Genocide’.

May 1915 shortly after World War 1 where Germany was the biggest Loser, the British Union Apartheid Government of South Africa begins Military onslaught against the German Regime in a bid to dethrone them and occupy this ‘South West African Territory’. Overwhelmed and Outnumbered the German Forces retreated and finally surrendered this Territory to South Africa on July 1915 after controlling it for 3-Decades. The league of Nations gave South Africa official Mandate to govern ‘South West Africa’.

Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo via ‘Ovamboland People’s Congress’ alongside Sam Nujoma, Jacob Kuhangua, Louis Nalengani, Emil Appolus and Lucas Haleinge founded ‘Ovamboland’s People’s Organization’-(OPO) on April 1959 as a Nationalist Organization to demand ‘South West Africa’s’ Independence from Apartheid South African Regime that had made this Territory One of its Provinces. Sam Nujoma was elected to lead this Organization after its first Congress.

Herero Chiefs Council led by Chief Hosea Kutako formed ‘South West African Union’-SWANU on September 1959 to act as an Umbrella Resistance Movement against South African Rule. Jariretundu Kazonguizi was elected to lead SWANU with support from OPO which had joined SWANU to unite for One Struggle for Independence.

After talks between Nujoma, Kazonguizi and a Herero Scholar Mburumba Kerina who were at the United Nations General Assemby in New York to Petition the United Nations to compel South Africa to grant ‘South West Africa’ Independence courtesy of Herero Chief’s Council; the Idea to transform OPO into a National Liberation Movement was agreed upon and on April 1960 OPO was transformed into ‘South West Africa People’s Organization’-SWAPO. Sam Nujoma was elected to lead SWAPO. The UN General Assembly of 1961 made a demand to the South Africa Regime to end its Control over ‘South West Africa’ but the high-handed Apartheid Regime could hear none of that.

In 1962 SWAPO founded its Military Wing (South West Africa Liberation Army) marking the beginning of what is Today referred to as ‘Namibian War and Struggle for Independence’ that went on all the way to 1989. The United Nations General Assembly again in 1968 made formal Recognition of SWAPO as the Sole Legitimate of ‘South West African People’; It also adopted Mburumba Kerina’s Proposal to rename ‘South West Africa’ to NAMIBIA as it’s known Today (derived from the Word NAMIB which means ‘a Vast Place’ in Nama Dialect.

With South Africa’s grip to Namibia growing weak under SWAPO’s unabated onslaught, Local and International Pressure to cede control over Namibia especially from the ‘Western Contact Group at the United Nations Security Council’; a Ceasefire Agreement was announced on August 1988 at Geneva-UN Premises. This was further solidified by the December 1988 ‘Tripartite Accord’ between Angola, Cuba and South Africa on Troops Withdrawal. The UN sent a Peace Force to monitor the Agreement and oversee a Free Transparent Election towards Namibia’s Independence.

A Constituents Assembly Election was held on November 1989 and SWAPO through a successful Campaign led  by Current President Hage Geingob Won  41 Seats (57%) with its main Challenger DTA (Democratic Turnhalle Alliance) Winning 21 Seats to the Assembly in what became Namibia’s first Multi-Party Elections where a Record 10 Parties Contested. Hage Geingob a former UN Secretariat Political Affairs Officer and Member of SWAPO’s Central Committee was elected as the Chairman of this first Constituent Assembly which he lead in formulating and adopting Namibia’s Independence Constitution on February 1990. The Results of this Election saw Sam Nujoma unanimously declared as Namibia’s first President with Hage Geingob as his first Prime Minister prior to Full and Official Independence that was granted March 21,1990 the day when the then President of South Africa’s Apartheid  Regime F.W De Klerk accompanied by South Africa’s Independence Icon Nelson Mandela who had just been released from Prison and 20 other Heads of State witnessed Sam Nujoma and Hage Geingob Swearing in to respectively become the first President and Prime Minister of Independent Namibia.

Post-Independence Namibia

President Sam Nujoma ruled on; On December 1994 Namibia’s first Post-Independence Elections were held and SWAPO Won with a Landslide Victory with 53/72 Seats in Parliament. President Nujoma got his first Direct Mandate from the People Winning the Presidential Election with 76%; his only Competitor One Mishake Muyongo from the main Opposition Alliance DTA got 24% with his Party Winning 15-Seats.

A controversial Namibian Constitution Amendment courtesy of SWAPO’s Majority in Parliament was made on November 1998 to allow President Nujoma to contest for a Third 5-Years Term. Future Presidents after Nujoma would however remain restricted to Two Constitutional Terms. Namibia’s Second General Elections were held on November 1999 and Nujoma was again Re-elected with 76% this time against Three Competitors from DTA, COD and UDF Parties. SWAPO still managed to retain its Dominance with 55/72 Seats.

President Nujoma’s Party SWAPO through its then Secretary-general Hifikepunye Pohamba announced on November 2001 that President Nujoma had declared his Plan to step down at the end of his third Term in 2004. On September 2002 President Nujoma demoted his Prime Minister Geingob to a local Government Minister amid Succession Strife upon which Geingob decided to Resign from Government. On the General Elections of November 2004; President Nujoma’s chosen Successor One Hifikepunye Pohamba won the Presidential Election with striking 76% like his Predecessor against 7 other Candidates. His Party SWAPO  maintained its Dominance again Winning 55/ 72 Seats in Parliament.Namibia’s 4th General Elections were held on November 2009 and President Hifikepunye was Re-elected with 75% for his Second and Last Term with SWAPO Winning 54/72.

The 5th General Elections were held on November 2014 and the then SWAPO Vice President and President Pohamba’s Prime Minister Hage Geingob who he had Appointed on December 2012 was elected to Succeed him with a landslide Victory of 86% beating 8 other Candidates. SWAPO again maintained its Dominance in Parliament with 77/96 Seats against 15 other Parties.

Namibia’s November 27, 2019 General Elections

NAMIBIA’s 6th Post-Independence General Elections are set to be held on November 27, 2019. 78-Years Old President Hage Geingob will be seeking his Second and Last Term as President against 10 other Candidates who have been cleared by the Electoral Commission ECN to contest for the Top Job. Independence Party SWAPO in Power since 1990 will be seeking to maintain its Dominance in Parliament against 14 other Parties.

President Geingob’s Two Main Challengers according to Special Voting conducted on November 13th, general Perspectives and Projections are seen to be one 62-Years Old Panduleni Itula; a Member of SWAPO since 1970’s who has rebelled and is now running for the Top Seat as an Independent Candidate. Another Key Challenger is main Opposition Alliance ‘Popular Democratic Movement’-PDM (formerly DTA) Candidate 42-Years Old McHenry Venaani who recently received backing from ‘United People’s Movement’-UPM in a bid to Challenge both President Geingob and SWAPO. There is only one Female Candidate who has become the first Woman to run for the Top Job in this Country; 57-Years Old former Social Worker Esther Muinjangue under NUDO-Party.

There are slightly over 1.3 Million Registered Voters who will be casting their Votes in 4241 Polling Stations across 121 Constituencies within Namibia’s 14 Regions.

Namibia November 27,2019 Election Results

INCUMBENT 78-Years Old President Hage Geingob was declared the WINNER of the 2019 Presidential Election with 464,703 Votes out of the Total 826,198 Valid Votes Casted which is 56.3% securing his Second and last 5-years Term as President. This is a sharp decline from 87% that he garnered in 2014 when he came to Power.
Independence/Ruling Party #SWAPO  led the National Assembly Election with 63/96 Seats which is also a sharp decline from 77/96 Seats it Won in 2014;For the first time in Namibia’s History SWAPO lost its overwhelming Majority in Parliament. Main Opposition Party PDM managed to win 16 Seats up from the 5 it won in 2014. A new entrant the ‘Landless People’s Movement’-LPM managed to win 4 Seats. 8 other Parties that contested in this Election managed to win a Seat or Two. 4 other Parties in this Election did not win any Seat.
Voter Turnout stood at 60% which is also a sharp decline from 72% recorded in 2014.
Geingob’s closest Rival Panduleni Itula came a strong Second with 242,657 Votes or 29.4%. Main Opposition Candidate McHenry Venaani of the PDM came a distant Third with 43,959 Votes or 5.3%. Namibia’s first Female Candidate Esther Muinjangue of the NUDO managed 12,039 Votes to become Position 6 out of 11 Candidates.

Namibia Quick Fact-File

  • Namibia currently has an estimated Total Population of 2.5 Million People who according to World Bank ‘Income Inequality’ Report live in the Second Most Economically Unequal Country after their Neighbors South Africa. It means the Gap between the Rich and the Poor in Namibia is the Second highest in the World after that of South Africa.
  • Namibia’s estimated 15 Billion Dollars GDP is mainly built around Mining with Namibia being Africa’s biggest Producer of Uranium in Africa and 4th in the World. Diamonds, Gems, Copper,Precious Metals and Jewellery are also Mined in Namibia. Fishing and sale of Boats, Fishing and Floating Vessels is also a robust Indusrty in Namibia where ‘Namibian Dollar’-N$/NAD is the Country’s Currency
  • Namibia is Home to the World’s Oldest and most Ancient Desert; the Namib Desert which is estimated to be about 80 Million Years Old
  • Namibia’s Namib Desert has the World’s highest Sand Dune known as Dune 7 which towers at 383 Meters high
  • The November 2014 Namibia General Election which was done using ‘Electronic Voting Machines’-EVMs made Namibia the first African Country to conduct a General Election Electronically
  • Christianity is the main Religion with Namibia’s Official Language being English; a Local Language known as Oshiwambo by the Ovambo People is spoken by at least Half of Namibia’s Population
  • Namibia’s Capital City is known as Windhoek which means ‘Windy Corner’ in Afrikaans.

(Images Courtesy)

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